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This invariant exists (for example) to guarantee that if you allocate a [email protected]@ -645,8 650,8 @@ PLEASE NOTE: The 'nents' argument to the dma_unmap_sg call must be dma_map_sg call.Every dma_map_() call should have its dma_unmap_()-counterpart, because the bus address space is a shared resource and-you could render the machine unusable by consuming all bus addresses.It also returns a which may be cast to an unsigned integer the-same width as the bus and given to the device as the bus address base of same width as the bus and given to the device as the DMA address base of the region.Note: consistent memory can be expensive on some platforms, and [email protected]@ -193,7 193,7 @@ dma_map_single(struct device *dev, void *cpu_addr, size_t size, enum dma_data_direction direction) Maps a piece of processor virtual memory so it can be accessed by the-device and returns the bus address of the memory. The direction for both APIs may be converted freely by casting.From a device's point of view, DMA uses the bus address space, but it may be restricted to a subset of that space.For example, even if a system supports 64-bit addresses for main memory and PCI BARs, it may use an IOMMU so devices only need to use 32-bit DMA addresses.But in many others, there is IOMMU hardware that translates bus Y.But in many others, there is IOMMU hardware that translates DMA addresses to physical addresses, e.g., it translates Z to Y.

The driver then tells the device to mapping and returns the DMA address Z.Here's a picture and some examples: CPU CPU [email protected]@ -72,11 77,11 @@ can use virtual address X to access the buffer, but the device itself cannot because DMA doesn't go through the CPU virtual memory system.In some simple systems, the device can do DMA directly to physical address-Y.However, for future compatibility you should bits of the DMA space.However, for future compatibility you should set the consistent mask even if this default is fine for your driver.

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